German writer and political activist (b. April 10, 1913, Chemnitz, Ger.-d. Dec. 16, 2001, Jerusalem, Israel), as the author of over a dozen novels, including The Crusaders (1948), provoked controversy with his dissident writings. Although he was an avowed Marxist-Leninist, he was a steady critic of East Germany's government throughout that regime's existence, and when German reunification came, he held out hope for socialism to prevail. To that end, he ran for election to the Bundestag (second house of parliament) in 1994, served for a year, and thereafter continued in his activist dissent.
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