judet (county), western Romania, occupying an area of 2,708 sq mi (7,016 sq km). The Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians) and the Western Carpathians rise above settlement areas in the valleys. The Mures River and its tributaries drain the county southwestward. Deva (q.v.) is the county capital. Roman and Dacian archaeological remains were discovered in several towns, including Deva, Orastie, Mintia, and Gradestea de Munte. Archaeological finds, dating from the Middle Neolithic Age (3500-2600 BC), were found in Turdas town. Gurusada, Santamaria, and Strei towns are known for their 14th-century churches. Metallurgical industries operate in Deva, Calan, Hunedoara, and Santuhalu. Copper, andesite, iron, and coal mines are worked in the county. The Ghelar and Teliuc iron mines have been operated since the Roman occupation. Chemicals and building materials are produced in Santuhalu. Agricultural activities in the county include livestock raising and fruit and cereal cultivation. A bamboo grove is situated near Mintia, and an arboretum containing deer and aurochs (European bison), was established in the 18th century near Simeria. Silvas Forest and the national park of Retezat are other nature reserves. The Petrosani Basin contains karst formations. Deva, Hunedoara, and Orastie are highway and railway centres. Pop. (1982 est.) 543,643

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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