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electromagnetic radiation of radio wavelength emitted by cold, neutral, interstellar hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atom is composed of a positively charged particle, the proton, and a negatively charged particle, the electron. These particles have some intrinsic angular momentum called spin. (However, this spin is not an actual physical rotation; it is, rather, a quantum mechanical effect.) When the spins of the two particles are antiparallel, then the atom is in its lowest energy state. When the spins are parallel, the atom has a tiny amount of extra energy. In the very cold space between the stars, the interstellar hydrogen atoms are at a state of lowest possible energy. Collisions between particles, however, can at times excite some atoms (which makes the spin of the particles parallel), giving them a tiny amount of energy. According to the rules of quantum mechanics, such atoms radiate their acquired energy in the form of low-energy photons that correspond to a wavelength of 21 centimetres, or a frequency of 1,420 megahertz. This radio radiation was theoretically predicted by the Dutch astronomer H.C. van de Hulst soon after the end of World War II and was experimentally detected by American physicists Harold Ewen and Edward Purcell at Harvard University in 1951. Since that time, 21-centimetre hydrogen emission has come to play a vital role in the study of the Milky Way Galaxy, because it readily penetrates the clouds of interstellar dust particles that obstruct optical observations deep into the galactic centre.