homogeneous mixture of substances that has physical properties linearly related to the properties of the pure components. The classic statement of this condition is Raoult's law, which is valid for many highly dilute solutions and for a limited class of concentrated solutions, namely, those in which the interactions between the molecules of solute and solvent are the same as those between the molecules of each substance by itself. Solutions of benzene and toluene, which have very similar molecular structures, are ideal: any mixture of the two has a volume equal to the sum of the volumes of the separate components, and the mixing process occurs without absorption or evolution of heat. The vapour pressures of the solutions are mathematically represented by a linear function of the molecular composition
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