idiom

[id-ee-uhm]
noun
1.
an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements, as kick the bucket or hang one's head, or from the general grammatical rules of a language, as the table round for the round table, and that is not a constituent of a larger expression of like characteristics.
2.
a language, dialect, or style of speaking peculiar to a people.
3.
a construction or expression of one language whose parts correspond to elements in another language but whose total structure or meaning is not matched in the same way in the second language.
4.
the peculiar character or genius of a language.
5.
a distinct style or character, in music, art, etc.: the idiom of Bach.

Origin:
1565–75; < Latin idiōma < Greek idíōma peculiarity, specific property equivalent to idiō- (variant stem of idioûsthai to make one's own, appropriate, verbal derivative of idiós; see idio-) + -ma noun suffix of result


1. See phrase.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
idiom (ˈɪdɪəm)
 
n
1.  a group of words whose meaning cannot be predicted from the meanings of the constituent words, as for example (It was raining) cats and dogs
2.  linguistic usage that is grammatical and natural to native speakers of a language
3.  the characteristic vocabulary or usage of a specific human group or subject
4.  the characteristic artistic style of an individual, school, period, etc
 
[C16: from Latin idiōma peculiarity of language, from Greek; see idio-]
 
idiomatic
 
adj
 
idio'matical
 
adj
 
idio'matically
 
adv
 
idio'maticalness
 
n

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

idiom
1588, "form of speech peculiar to a people or place," from M.Fr. idiome, from L.L. idioma "a peculiarity in language," from Gk. idioma "peculiarity, peculiar phraseology," from idioumai "I make my own," from idios "personal, private," prop. particular to oneself, from PIE *swed-yo-, suffixed form of
base *s(w)e-, pronoun of the third person and reflexive (referring back to the subject of a sentence), also used in forms denoting the speaker's social group, "(we our-)selves" (cf. Skt. svah, Avestan hva-, O.Pers. huva "one's own," khva-data "lord," lit. "created from oneself;" Gk. hos "he, she, it;" L. suescere "to accustom, get accustomed," sodalis "companion;" O.C.S. svoji "his, her, its," svojaku "relative, kinsman;" Goth. swes "one's own;" O.N. sik "oneself;" Ger. Sein; O.Ir. fein "self, himself"). Idiomatic is first attested 1712.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

idiom definition


A traditional way of saying something. Often an idiom, such as “under the weather,” does not seem to make sense if taken literally. Someone unfamiliar with English idioms would probably not understand that to be “under the weather” is to be sick. (See examples under “Idioms.”)

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Focus students' attention to a pre-chosen article with plenty of sports
  metaphors and idioms.
There are tons of idioms in different languages that reflect this folk wisdom.
Sadly, idioms don't always accord with logical argumentation.
If you're looking for ardor and surprise idioms from a board, look no longer.
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