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city, Riverside county, southern California, U.S. Located in the Coachella Valley, Indio lies between Palm Springs (northwest) and the Salton Sea (southeast). The area was originally inhabited by Cahuilla Indians and was the site of Spanish and Mexican exploration in the late 18th century; the Spanish subsequently established a mission outpost there. The city was founded in 1876 as Indian Wells, on the site of Palte-Wat Indian village, by the Southern Pacific Railroad, and in 1877 it was renamed Indio (Spanish: "Indian"). In the 1850s local artesian wells were utilized for irrigation, and Collis P. Huntington, president of the railway, successfully introduced Algerian date shoots (a national date festival is held each February as part of the Riverside County Fair). Indio developed as a desert spa and a shipping point for agricultural produce, especially dates, citrus, grapes, vegetables, and cotton. After 1949 water via the All-American Canal gave added impetus to Indio's growth. Light manufacturing, tourism, and nearby retirement communities supplement the agricultural economy. The city also hosts a popular tamale festival, several powwows, and an arts festival. Joshua Tree National Park is 25 miles (40 km) east, and San Bernardino National Forest is west of the city. Inc. 1930. Pop. (1990) 36,793; (2000) 49,116.