9 Grammatical Pitfalls


[in-fur] /ɪnˈfɜr/
verb (used with object), inferred, inferring.
to derive by reasoning; conclude or judge from premises or evidence:
They inferred his displeasure from his cool tone of voice.
(of facts, circumstances, statements, etc.) to indicate or involve as a conclusion; lead to.
to guess; speculate; surmise.
to hint; imply; suggest.
verb (used without object), inferred, inferring.
to draw a conclusion, as by reasoning.
Origin of infer
1520-30; < Latin inferre, equivalent to in- in-2 + ferre to bring, carry, bear1
Related forms
inferable, inferible, inferrible, adjective
inferably, adverb
inferrer, noun
misinfer, verb, misinferred, misinferring.
noninferable, adjective
noninferably, adverb
preinfer, verb (used with object), preinferred, preinferring.
quasi-inferred, adjective
reinfer, verb (used with object), reinferred, reinferring.
subinfer, verb, subinferred, subinferring.
superinfer, verb (used with object), superinferred, superinferring.
uninferable, adjective
uninferably, adverb
uninferred, adjective
uninferrible, adjective
uninferribly, adverb
Can be confused
imply, infer (see usage note at the current entry)
1. deduce, reason, guess.
Usage note
Infer has been used to mean “to hint or suggest” since the 16th century by speakers and writers of unquestioned ability and eminence: The next speaker criticized the proposal, inferring that it was made solely to embarrass the government. Despite its long history, many 20th-century usage guides condemn the use, maintaining that the proper word for the intended sense is imply and that to use infer is to lose a valuable distinction between the two words.
Although the claimed distinction has probably existed chiefly in the pronouncements of usage guides, and although the use of infer to mean “to suggest” usually produces no ambiguity, the distinction too has a long history and is widely observed by many speakers and writers. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
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Examples from the web for inferred
  • He inferred that this meant that the lawsuits never had any basis.
  • And incidentally, in the actual historical context of the quote, what you've inferred is patently wrong.
  • However, their presence can usually only be inferred through the gravitational influences they have on their nearby star.
  • So far, astronomers have inferred its presence only indirectly by measuring the effects of its gravity.
  • Causal affects cannot be directly inferred from statistical correlations.
  • It involves stomping, but if you read the comic you could have inferred that.
  • From this it might be inferred that the matter is as simple here as in our country.
  • The longer form used to be sent to only a selection of households, from which general conclusions were inferred.
  • Their presence and orbits are inferred as they tug on their parent stars.
  • The locations of the other two, in contrast, were inferred from measurements of anomalies in the planet's gravitational field.
British Dictionary definitions for inferred


verb (when transitive, may take a clause as object) -fers, -ferring, -ferred
to conclude (a state of affairs, supposition, etc) by reasoning from evidence; deduce
(transitive) to have or lead to as a necessary or logical consequence; indicate
(transitive) to hint or imply
Derived Forms
inferable, inferible, inferrable, inferrible, adjective
inferably, adverb
inferrer, noun
Usage note
The use of infer to mean imply is becoming more and more common in both speech and writing. There is nevertheless a useful distinction between the two which many people would be in favour of maintaining. To infer means `to deduce', and is used in the construction to infer something from something: I inferred from what she said that she had not been well. To imply (sense 1) means `to suggest, to insinuate' and is normally followed by a clause: are you implying that I was responsible for the mistake?
Word Origin
C16: from Latin inferre to bring into, from ferre to bear, carry
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for inferred



1520s, from Latin inferre "bring into, carry in; deduce, infer, conclude, draw an inference; bring against," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + ferre "carry, bear," from PIE *bher- (1) "to bear, to carry, to take" (cf. Sanskrit bharati "carries;" Avestan baraiti "carries;" Old Persian barantiy "they carry;" Armenian berem "I carry;" Greek pherein "to carry;" Old Irish beru/berim "I catch, I bring forth;" Gothic bairan "to carry;" Old English and Old High German beran, Old Norse bera "barrow;" Old Church Slavonic birati "to take;" Russian brat' "to take," bremya "a burden"). Sense of "draw a conclusion" is first attested 1520s.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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