information theory

noun
the mathematical theory concerned with the content, transmission, storage, and retrieval of information, usually in the form of messages or data, and especially by means of computers.

Origin:
1945–50

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Collins
World English Dictionary
information theory
 
n
a collection of mathematical theories, based on statistics, concerned with methods of coding, transmitting, storing, retrieving, and decoding information

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
information theory  
A branch of mathematics that mathematically defines and analyzes the concept of information. Information theory involves statistics and probability theory, and applications include the design of systems that have to do with data transmission, encryption, compression, and other information processing.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Borrowing a page from information theory, consider the difference between
  information and noise.
The rise of information theory aided and abetted a new view of life.
Information theory provides one way of understanding how matter and mind are
  connected.
Quantum information theory is cute and all that, but it doesn't solve any of
  the conceptual foundation of quantum mechanics.
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