the act of federating or uniting in a league.
the formation of a political unity, with a central government, by a number of separate states, each of which retains control of its own internal affairs.
a league or confederacy.
a federated body formed by a number of nations, states, societies, unions, etc., each retaining control of its own internal affairs.

1715–25; < Late Latin foederātiōn- (stem of foederātiō) a leaguing. See federate, -ion

interfederation, noun
profederation, adjective
refederation, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
federation (ˌfɛdəˈreɪʃən)
1.  the act of federating
2.  the union of several provinces, states, etc, to form a federal union
3.  a political unit formed in such a way
4.  any league, alliance, or confederacy
5.  a union of several parties, groups, etc
6.  any association or union for common action

Federation (ˌfɛdəˈreɪʃən)
1.  the Federation the federation of the Australian colonies in 1901
2.  a style of domestic architecture of that period, characterized by red brick, terracotta roof tiles, sinuous curves, and heavy window frames

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

Federation is first attested 1721, from L.L. foederationem, from L. foederare "league together," from foedus "covenant, league" (gen. foederis); see federal.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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