Note: The continuing conflict between Irish Roman Catholics and Protestants began when Henry VIII of England imposed the Protestant Church of Ireland upon a largely Catholic population.
Note: The Easter Rebellion of 1916, although unsuccessful, became a symbolic impetus for Irish nationalists struggling against British rule.
Note: In 1918, Catholic nationalists proclaimed an Irish republic, and in 1920, two separate parliaments for Catholic Ireland and Northern Ireland were established.
Note: A treaty with Britain in 1922 established the Irish Free State. The Republic of Ireland was proclaimed in 1949.