Republic in southern Asia, bordered by India to the east, the Arabian Sea (an arm of the Indian Ocean) to the south, Iran to the southwest, and Afghanistan to the west and north.
Note: Pakistan became part of British India in 1857. When India gained its independence in 1947, Muslim leaders demanded a separate Muslim state, and the nation of Pakistan was established. Originally, Pakistan consisted of two regions, West Pakistan (now Pakistan) and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
Note: In 1998, Pakistan successfully conducted tests of nuclear weapons.
Note: In 2001, Pakistan's president allowed the United States to use his country as a base to attack Afghanistan for harboring Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda members.