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the parents of the Virgin Mary, according to tradition derived from certain apocryphal writings. Information concerning their lives and names is found in the 2nd-century-AD Protevangelium of James ("First Gospel of James") and the 3rd-century-AD Evangelium de nativitate Mariae ("Gospel of the Nativity of Mary"). According to these sources, Anne (Hebrew: Hannah) was born in Bethlehem, Judaea. She married Joachim, and, although they shared a wealthy and devout life at Nazareth, they eventually lamented their childlessness. Joachim, reproached at the Temple for his sterility, retreated into the countryside to pray, while Anne, grieved by his disappearance and by her barrenness, solemnly promised God that, if given a child, she would dedicate it to the Lord's service. Both received the vision of an angel, who announced that Anne would conceive and bear a most wondrous child