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city, southeastern Finland, at the mouth of the Pielis River, southeast of Kuopio. Chartered in 1848, the city is a rail junction and centre for lumber shipment and has connections by steamship, highway, and air. Local industry includes plywood and lumber mills. The University of Joensuu was established in 1969. Notable landmarks include the town hall (1914), designed by the 20th-century architect Eliel Saarinen; the Pielisjoki Castle; the Museum of North Karelia; the Greek Orthodox church of Saint Nikolaos (1887); the Carelicuma, a cultural and tourism centre; the Joensuu Bunker Museum at Marjala; and a monument in honour of Olli Tiainen, a peasant who led guerrilla fighters to victory over the Russians in 1808. Pop. (2005 est.) 57,858.