a public officer authorized to hear and decide cases in a court of law; a magistrate charged with the administration of justice.
a person appointed to decide in any competition, contest, or matter at issue; authorized arbiter: the judges of a beauty contest.
a person qualified to pass a critical judgment: a good judge of horses.
an administrative head of Israel in the period between the death of Joshua and the accession to the throne by Saul.
(especially in rural areas) a county official with supervisory duties, often employed part-time or on an honorary basis.
verb (used with object), judged, judging.
to pass legal judgment on; pass sentence on (a person): The court judged him guilty.
to hear evidence or legal arguments in (a case) in order to pass judgment; adjudicate; try: The Supreme Court is judging that case.
to form a judgment or opinion of; decide upon critically: You can't judge a book by its cover.
to decide or settle authoritatively; adjudge: The censor judged the book obscene and forbade its sale.
to infer, think, or hold as an opinion; conclude about or assess: He judged her to be correct.
to make a careful guess about; estimate: We judged the distance to be about four miles.
(of the ancient hebrew judges) to govern.
verb (used without object), judged, judging.
to act as a judge; pass judgment: No one would judge between us.
to form an opinion or estimate: I have heard the evidence and will judge accordingly.
to make a mental judgment.

1175–1225; (v.) Middle English jugen < Anglo-French juger, Old French jugier < Latin jūdicāre to judge, equivalent to jūdic- (stem of jūdex) a judge + -āre infinitive suffix; (noun) Middle English juge < Old French < Latin jūdicem, accusative of jūdex

judgeable, adjective
judger, noun
judgeless, adjective
judgelike, adjective
judgeship, noun
judgingly, adverb
rejudge, verb, rejudged, rejudging.
subjudge, noun
subjudgeship, noun
underjudge, verb (used with object), underjudged, underjudging.
underjudge, noun
unjudgeable, adjective
unjudged, adjective
unjudgelike, adjective
unjudging, adjective
well-judged, adjective

judge, justice (see synonym study at the current entry).

1. justice. 2. arbitrator. Judge, referee, umpire refer to one who is entrusted with decisions affecting others. Judge in its legal and other uses, implies particularly that one has qualifications and authority for giving decisions in matters at issue: a judge appointed to the Supreme Court; a judge in the pie competition. A referee usually examines and reports on the merits of a case as an aid to a court. An umpire gives the final ruling when arbitrators of a case disagree. 3. connoisseur, critic. 10. determine, consider, regard. 13. adjudge, adjudicate.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
judge (dʒʌdʒ)
1.  magistrate justice Compare justice a public official with authority to hear cases in a court of law and pronounce judgment upon themRelated: judicial
2.  a person who is appointed to determine the result of contests or competitions
3.  a person qualified to comment critically: a good judge of antiques
4.  a leader of the peoples of Israel from Joshua's death to the accession of Saul
5.  to hear and decide upon (a case at law)
6.  (tr) to pass judgment on; sentence
7.  (when tr, may take a clause as object or an infinitive) to decide or deem (something) after inquiry or deliberation
8.  to determine the result of (a contest or competition)
9.  to appraise (something) critically
10.  (tr; takes a clause as object) to believe (something) to be the case; suspect
Related: judicial
[C14: from Old French jugier, from Latin jūdicāre to pass judgment, from jūdex a judge]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

early 13c., "to form an opinion about," from Anglo-Fr. juger, from O.Fr. jugier "to judge," from L. judicare "to judge," from judicem (nom. judex) "to judge," a compound of jus "right, law" + root of dicere "to say" (see diction). The O.E. word was deman (see
doom). Meaning "to try and pronounce sentence upon (someone) in a court" is from late 13c. The noun is from c.1300. In Hebrew history, it refers to a war leader vested with temporary power (e.g. Book of Judges), from L. judex being used to translate Heb. shophet.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Bible Dictionary

Judge definition

(Heb. shophet, pl. shophetim), properly a magistrate or ruler, rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause. This is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the accession of Saul (Judg. 2:18), a period of general anarchy and confusion. "The office of judges or regents was held during life, but it was not hereditary, neither could they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited by the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim (Num. 27:21). Their authority extended only over those tribes by whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income attached to their office, and they bore no external marks of dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar position of having been from before his birth ordained 'to begin to deliver Israel.' Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio upon him." Of five of the judges, Tola (Judg. 10:1), Jair (3), Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15), we have no record at all beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its onward progress. In Ex. 2:14 Moses is so styled. This fact may indicate that while for revenue purposes the "taskmasters" were over the people, they were yet, just as at a later time when under the Romans, governed by their own rulers.

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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