an act or instance of placing close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.
the state of being close together or side by side.

1655–65; < French < Latin juxtā side by side + French position position

juxtapositional, adjective
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Word Origin & History

1660s, coined in Fr. 17c. from L. juxta "beside, near" + Fr. position (see position (n.)). Latin juxta is a contraction of *jugista (adv.), superlative of adj. *jugos "closely connected," from stem of jugum "yoke," from jungere "to join" (see jugular).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

juxtaposition jux·ta·po·si·tion (jŭk'stə-pə-zĭsh'ən)
The state of being placed or situated side by side.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
These juxtapositions inevitably focus on the shortcomings of the prescriptive
  system with respect to performance-based design.
The result is a refreshing display of thoughtful pairings and juxtapositions,
  including works by some lesser-known artists.
It is disorienting both because of dark and bright juxtapositions and the
  discontinuities in the diurnal motion.
It gives visitors a chance to take in a country full of juxtapositions.
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