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city, north-central Turkey. It is situated near the Gok (ancient Amnias) River. It lies in a sparsely populated high basin south of the densely populated Black Sea coastal plain. As Castamon, it was on the northern trunk route to the Euphrates River and was an important Byzantine town captured by the Seljuq Turks in the late 11th century AD. It was taken by rival emirs in the next century and was for a time the seat of another Muslim principality before its absorption into the Ottoman Empire in 1393. Notable buildings of the city include a ruined Byzantine fortress on a rocky hill above the town, around which the old town was clustered; a group of religious buildings containing a theological college, mosque, and a hospice for the poor (16th century); and a colourful covered bazaar (16th century). Modern Kastamonu is known for its copper utensils and has a sugar factory. The city has a small museum and a teacher-training school. Pop. (2000) 64,606.