|Kazakhstan or Kazakstan (ˌkɑːzɑːkˈstæn, -ˈstɑːn, ˌkɑːzɑːkˈstæn, -ˈstɑːn)|
|a republic in central Asia: conquered by Mongols in the 13th century; came under Russian control in the 18th and 19th centuries; was a Soviet republic from 1936 until it gained independence in 1991. It has rich mineral deposits and agriculture is important. Official language: Kazakh. Religion: nonreligious, Muslim, and Christian. Official currency: tenge. Capital: Astana (formerly Akmola, Akmolinsk, or Tselinograd); capital functions moved from Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata) in 1997. Pop: 15 403 000 (2004 est). Area: 2 715 100 sq km (1 048 030 sq miles)|
|Kazakstan or Kazakstan|
Republic in west-central Asia, bordered on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, on the south by Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, and on the west by the Caspian Sea. Its capital and largest city is Alma-Ata.
Note: This former member of the Soviet Union declared its independence in 1990. It possesses valuable oil reserves.