city, seat (1874) of Buffalo county, south-central Nebraska, U.S. It lies on the north bank of the Platte River, about 130 miles (210 km) west of Lincoln. Pawnee Indians were early inhabitants of the area. The city was founded in 1871 at the junction of the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad and the Union Pacific Railroad. It was named Kearney Junction for nearby Fort Kearny (a postal error added an "e" to the city's name), a U.S. Army post (1848-71) that had been established to protect travelers on the Oregon Trail and was named for Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny. During the 1870s and '80s the city grew with the establishment of a cotton mill and construction of a canal (1886) for irrigation and power. Economic collapse and drought in the 1890s ended the boom period, but in the early 1900s the city began to recover with a diversified economy. Kearney developed as an agricultural centre with light industry. Corn (maize), alfalfa (lucerne), soybeans, and cattle are produced, and the manufacture of automotive parts, engine components, filters, generators, and grain-storage and -handling systems is important. The University of Nebraska at Kearney (1903) is located there. Fort Kearny State Historical Park is across the river about 5 miles (8 km) southeast. The Great Platte River Road Archway Monument (2000) spans the interstate highway that now runs along the route of the westward trails. The structure consists of two towers, eight stories high, on either side of the highway, joined by a 308-foot (94-metre) arch. The monument contains exhibits commemorating the settlement of the West. The Museum of Nebraska Art is on the university campus, and the Trails and Rails Museum preserves Kearney's transportation history. Several state recreation areas are nearby along the river. Inc. 1873. Pop. (2000) 27,431; (2005 est.) 28,958.
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