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city, Vejle amtskommune (county commune), eastern Jutland, Denmark. It lies at the head of Kolding Fjord, north of Haderslev. The name occurs in the 10th century, but the earliest-known town rights date from 1321. The settlement grew up around Koldinghus, a royal castle built in 1248 to defend the frontier. Kolding was the scene of a Danish victory over the Swedes in 1644 and of a Danish defeat by Schleswig-Holsteiners in 1849. The castle was severely damaged by fire in 1808 but has been partially restored. The large square tower was built by Christian IV (1588-1648). The Sankt Nikolaj Church dates from the 13th century.