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city, southwestern Maharashtra state, western India, on the Pancaganga River. It was the capital of the former princely state of Kolhapur and seat of the British residency for Deccan states. An early centre of Buddhism, the city contains a 9th-century Mahalaksmi temple and is known as "the Varanasi of the South." Kolhapur lies in a prosperous agricultural region and is an important commercial city. Its industries include sugar processing and the manufacture of textiles and engineering products. Shivaji University was established there in 1962. Pop. (1991 prelim.) 405,118.