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walled town, seaport, and resort at the south end of Kotor Bay, one of four bays of the Gulf of Kotor (Boka Kotorska), on the Adriatic coastline of Montenegro. The town, situated about 30 miles (50 km) south of Niksic, lies at the foot of the sheer Lovcen massif, which rises to 5,738 feet (1,749 metres). Kotor was founded by the ancient Romans as Acruvium. In the 10th century it was an autonomous city ruled from Byzantium, and from 1186 to 1371 it was a free city of medieval Serbia. It was Venetian and Hungarian for brief periods, an independent republic from 1395 to 1420, and Venetian again until 1797. The town suffered periodic damage from Turkish assaults and from earthquakes. Between 1807 and 1814 it was occupied by France; the French period was followed by Austrian domination until 1918, when Slav sailors in the Austro-Hungarian navy mutinied at Kotor and the town was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (from 1929 to 2003 Yugoslavia)