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city, Brandenburg Land (state), eastern Germany. It lies on the Spree River, at the southeastern edge of the Spree Forest, near the German border with Poland. First mentioned in 1156 and chartered in the early 13th century, Cottbus became an exclave of Brandenburg in 1445-55 in Niederlausitz (Lower Lusatia) and part of Saxony in 1807-13. It has 14th- and 15th-century churches and remains of the old fortifications, notably the Spremberg Tower. A railway junction and industrial centre, Cottbus manufactures textiles, food products, and electrotechnical equipment. It is also the site of a large brown-coal-fired power plant. Cottbus is the seat of Brandenburg Technical University (founded 1991). The city's popular Staatstheater Cottbus, founded in 1908, is situated in an art nouveau building. Cottbus has extensive municipal parks and hosts an annual national garden show. Pop. (2003 est.) 107,549.