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kulak

[koo-lahk, -lak; koo-lahk, -lak] /kʊˈlɑk, -ˈlæk; ˈku lɑk, -læk/
noun, (in Russia)
1.
a comparatively wealthy peasant who employed hired labor or possessed farm machinery and who was viewed and treated by the Communists during the drive to collectivize agriculture in the 1920s and 1930s as an oppressor and class enemy.
2.
(before the revolution of 1917) a prosperous, ruthless, and stingy merchant or village usurer.
Origin
1875-1880
1875-80; < Russian kulák literally, fist
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for kulaks

kulak

/ˈkuːlæk/
noun
1.
(in Russia after 1906) a member of the class of peasants who became proprietors of their own farms. After the October Revolution the kulaks opposed collectivization of land, but in 1929 Stalin initiated their liquidation
Word Origin
C19: from Russian: fist, hence, tightfisted person; related to Turkish kol arm
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for kulaks

kulak

n.

1877, from Russian kulak (plural kulaki) "tight-fisted person," literally "fist," from Turki (Turkish) kul "hand."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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