city, southeastern Azerbaijan. It lies on the shore of the Caspian Sea, in the Lankaran Lowland. First mentioned in the 17th century, it was capital of the Talysh khanate of Iran in the 18th century. It was held by Russia from 1728 to 1735 but only fell definitively to Russia in 1813. Lankaran is now the centre of a rich agricultural region, where subtropical crops, such as tea and citrus, are grown. There is a brickyard, furniture factory, and timber combine. Pop. (1991 est.) 45,400
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