living fossil

noun
an organism that is a living example of an otherwise extinct group and that has remained virtually unchanged in structure and function over a long period of time, as the coelacanth and the horseshoe crab.

Origin:
1920–25

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World English Dictionary
living fossil
 
n
an animal or plant, such as the coelacanth and ginkgo, belonging to a group most of whose members are extinct

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Example sentences
It's not every day that a living fossil shows up in a fisherman's net.
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