logarithm

[law-guh-rith-uhm, -rith-, log-uh-]
noun Mathematics.
the exponent of the power to which a base number must be raised to equal a given number; log: 2 is the logarithm of 100 to the base 10 (2 = log10 100).

Origin:
1605–15; < Neo-Latin logarithmus < Greek lóg(os) log- + arithmós number; see arithmetic

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World English Dictionary
logarithm (ˈlɒɡəˌrɪðəm)
 
n
common logarithm See also natural logarithm Often shortened to: log the exponent indicating the power to which a fixed number, the base, must be raised to obtain a given number or variable. It is used esp to simplify multiplication and division: if ax = M, then the logarithm of M to the base a (written logaM) is x
 
[C17: from New Latin logarithmus, coined 1614 by John Napier, from Greek logos ratio, reckoning + arithmos number]

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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

logarithm
1610s, Mod.L. logarithmus, coined by Scot. mathematician John Napier (1550-1617), lit. "ratio-number," from Gk. logos "proportion, ratio, word" (see logos) + arithmos "number" (see arithmetic). Related: Logarithmic.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
logarithm  [%PREMIUM_LINK%]     (lô'gə-rĭ'əm)  Pronunciation Key 
The power to which a base must be raised to produce a given number. For example, if the base is 10, then the logarithm of 1,000 (written log 1,000 or log10 1,000) is 3 because 103 = 1,000. See more at common logarithm, natural logarithm.

The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
When two parameters are involved, the relationship between the stimuli and perception is the square of the logarithm.
The only difference is the exponent, and as a result the logarithm, are negative.
The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs.
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