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city, Lorain county, northern Ohio, U.S. It is located on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Black River, about 5 miles (8 km) northwest of Elyria and 25 miles (40 km) west of Cleveland. Moravian missionaries camped briefly on the site in 1787, but the first permanent settler was Nathan Perry, from Vermont, who built a trading post there in 1807. First known as Black River, it was incorporated as the village of Charleston in 1836 and was renamed in 1874 for the county (which had taken its name from the province of Lorraine, France) when it was rechartered as a city. The coal and iron-ore trade was established with the completion in 1872 of what became the Cleveland, Lorain, and Wheeling Railroad (later part of the Baltimore and Ohio) and the opening of the Poe Lock at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. (1896). Industrial development began after 1894, when a steel mill was built on the Black River. Lorain is now a major Midwest shipping centre handling coal, iron ore, and limestone. Industries include automobile and truck assembly and the manufacture of steel bars and tubes, power shovels, cranes, bearings, gypsum products, and clothing. Novelist and Nobel laureate Toni Morrison and textile artist Lenore Tawney are Lorain natives. Pop. (2000) city, 68,652; (2005 est.) 67,820.