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lower case

[loh-er] /ˈloʊ ər/
noun, Printing.
1.
See under case2 (def 8).
Origin
1675-1685
1675-85

case2

[keys] /keɪs/
noun
1.
an often small or portable container for enclosing something, as for carrying or safekeeping; receptacle:
a jewel case.
2.
a sheath or outer covering:
a knife case.
3.
a box with its contents:
a case of ginger ale.
4.
the amount contained in a box or other container:
There are a dozen bottles to a case.
5.
a pair or couple; brace:
a case of pistols.
6.
a surrounding frame or framework, as of a door.
7.
Bookbinding. a completed book cover ready to be fitted to form the binding of a book.
8.
Printing. a tray of wood, metal, or plastic, divided into compartments for holding types for the use of a compositor and usually arranged in a set of two, the upper (upper case) for capital letters and often auxiliary types, the lower (lower case) for small letters and often auxiliary types, now generally replaced by the California job case.
Compare news case.
9.
a cavity in the skull of a sperm whale, containing an oil from which spermaceti is obtained.
10.
Also called case card. Cards. the last card of a suit or denomination that remains after the other cards have been played:
a case heart; the case jack.
11.
Faro. casebox.
12.
Southeastern U.S. (chiefly South Carolina) . a coin of a particular denomination, as opposed to the same amount in change:
a case quarter.
13.
Metallurgy. the hard outer part of a piece of casehardened steel.
verb (used with object), cased, casing.
14.
to put or enclose in a case; cover with a case.
15.
Slang. to examine or survey (a house, bank, etc.) in planning a crime (sometimes followed by out):
They cased the joint and decided to pull the job on Sunday.
16.
to fuse a layer of glass onto (glass of a contrasting color or of different properties).
17.
to cover (a surface of a wall, well, shaft, etc.) with a facing or lining; revet.
18.
Bookbinding. to bind (a book) in a case.
19.
Cards Slang.
  1. to arrange (cards or a pack of cards) in a dishonest manner.
  2. to remember the quantity, suit, or denomination of (the cards played).
Origin
1250-1300; Middle English cas < Anglo-French cas(s)e, Old French chasse < Latin capsa cylindrical case for holding books in scroll form, receptacle
Related forms
caser, noun
well-cased, adjective
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for lower-case

lower case

noun
1.
a compositor's type case, in which the small letters are kept
adjective
2.
of or relating to small letters
verb
3.
(transitive) to print with lower-case letters

case1

/keɪs/
noun
1.
a single instance, occurrence, or example of something
2.
an instance of disease, injury, hardship, etc
3.
a question or matter for discussion the case before the committee
4.
a specific condition or state of affairs; situation
5.
a set of arguments supporting a particular action, cause, etc
6.
  1. a person attended or served by a doctor, social worker, solicitor, etc; patient or client
  2. (as modifier) a case study
7.
  1. an action or suit at law or something that forms sufficient grounds for bringing an action he has a good case
  2. the evidence offered in court to support a claim
8.
(grammar)
  1. a set of grammatical categories of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, marked by inflection in some languages, indicating the relation of the noun, adjective, or pronoun to other words in the sentence
  2. any one of these categories the nominative case
9.
(informal) a person in or regarded as being in a specified condition the accident victim was a hospital case, he's a mental case
10.
(informal) a person of a specified character (esp in the phrase a hard case)
11.
(informal) an odd person; eccentric
12.
(US, informal) love or infatuation
13.
short for case shot See canister (sense 2b)
14.
as the case may be, according to the circumstances
15.
(adverb) in any case, no matter what; anyhow we will go in any case
16.
(adverb) in case
  1. in order to allow for eventualities
  2. (as conjunction) in order to allow for the possibility that take your coat in case it rains
  3. (US) if
17.
(preposition) in case of, in the event of
18.
(adverb) in no case, under no circumstances in no case should you fight back
Word Origin
Old English casus (grammatical) case, associated also with Old French cas a happening; both from Latin cāsus, a befalling, occurrence, from cadere to fall

case2

/keɪs/
noun
1.
  1. a container, such as a box or chest
  2. (in combination) suitcase, briefcase
2.
an outer cover or sheath, esp for a watch
3.
a receptacle and its contents a case of ammunition
4.
a pair or brace, esp of pistols
5.
(architect) another word for casing (sense 3)
6.
a completed cover ready to be fastened to a book to form its binding
7.
(printing) a tray divided into many compartments in which a compositor keeps individual metal types of a particular size and style. Cases were originally used in pairs, one (the upper case) for capitals, the other (the lower case) for small letters See also upper case, lower case
8.
(metallurgy) the surface of a piece of steel that has been case-hardened
verb (transitive)
9.
to put into or cover with a case to case the machinery
10.
(slang) to inspect carefully (esp a place to be robbed)
Word Origin
C13: from Old French casse, from Latin capsa, from capere to take, hold
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for lower-case
case
"state of affairs," early 13c., from O.Fr. cas "an event," from L. casus "a chance," lit. "a falling," from cas-, pp. stem of cadere "to fall, sink, settle down, decline, perish" (used widely: of the setting of heavenly bodies, the fall of Troy, suicides), from PIE base *kad- "to lay out, fall or make fall, yield, break up" (cf. Skt. sad- "to fall down," Armenian chacnum "to fall, become low," perhaps also M.Ir. casar "hail, lightning"). The notion being "that which falls" as "that which happens." Widespread extended senses in law, medicine, grammar, etc. In case "in the event" is recorded from mid-14c. Case history is from 1912, originally medical; case study is from 1933, originally legal.
case
"receptacle," c.1300, from O.N.Fr. casse, O.Fr. chasse, from L. capsa "box," from capere "to take, hold" (see capable). The verb meaning "examine, inspect" (usually prior to robbing) is Amer.Eng. slang first recorded 1915. Artillery sense is from 1660s, from case-shot "small projectiles put in cases" (1620s). Reference in the printing trade (first recorded 1580s) to the two trays where compositors keep their types in separate compartments for easy access led to upper case for capitals and lower case for small letters.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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lower-case in Medicine

case (kās)
n.
An occurrence of a disease or disorder.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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lower-case in Culture

case definition


A grammatical category indicating whether nouns and pronouns are functioning as the subject of a sentence (nominative case) or the object of a sentence (objective case), or are indicating possession (possessive case). He is in the nominative case, him is in the objective case, and his is in the possessive case. In a language such as English, nouns do not change their form in the nominative or objective case. Only pronouns do. Thus, ball stays the same in both “the ball is thrown,” where it is the subject, and in “Harry threw the ball,” where it is the object.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Slang definitions & phrases for lower-case

case

noun
  1. An odd, eccentric person; card, character (1833+)
  2. : Lefty gave the bank a case
verb

(also case out) To inspect, scrutinize, esp with a view to robbery or burglary •Keep the cases in the sense ''keep close watch'' is attested fr 1856, with reference to faro: I've cased this one and it's ripe (1914+ Underworld)

Related Terms

butterfly case, couch case, drop case, get down to cases, get off someone's case, get on someone's case, have a case of the dumb-ass, have a case on someone, headcase, make a federal case out of something, nutball, off someone's case, on someone's case, worst-case scenario


The Dictionary of American Slang, Fourth Edition by Barbara Ann Kipfer, PhD. and Robert L. Chapman, Ph.D.
Copyright (C) 2007 by HarperCollins Publishers.
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Related Abbreviations for lower-case

CASE

computer-aided software engineering
The American Heritage® Abbreviations Dictionary, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Idioms and Phrases with lower-case
The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Difficulty index for lower case

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Word Value for lower

8
9
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