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city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. Ludwigshafen is a port on the west (left) bank of the Rhine River. Founded in 1606 as a bridgehead (Rheinschanze) opposite Mannheim, it was renamed for King Louis (Ludwig) I of Bavaria in 1843 and was chartered in 1859. The city was severely bombed during World War II and has been rebuilt in modern style. Ludwigshafen is a rail junction, a commercial centre, and the gateway to the wine-growing region of the Rhine. The city is noted for its large chemical industry, which was established in the 1860s. Motor vehicles, electrical products, and machinery are manufactured, and trade has been important since the opening of the harbour in 1897. The Neoclassical pilgrimage church of Maria Himmelfahrt (1774-77) is in the Oggersheim district of the city, where Friedrich Schiller, the poet and dramatist, lived after fleeing from Stuttgart. Pop. (2003 est.) 162,836.