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in insects, any of the excretory organs that lie in the abdominal body cavity and empty into the junction between midgut and hindgut. In species having few malpighian tubules, they are long and coiled; in species with numerous (up to 150) tubules, they are short. The tubule cells actively transport initial urine constituents (potassium ions, water, urate ions, sugar, amino acids) into the tubule. In some species urine is acidified in the distal end of the tubule and an aqueous suspension of uric acid crystals is conducted into the rectum, where water and nutrients are reabsorbed. In other species the urine is acidified in the rectum. Certain tubule cells may have special functions, as in the secretion of the sticky substance that surrounds eggs of certain leaf beetles or in the secretion of silk by certain immature beetles.