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(from mamaruca, Indian for "half-breed"), in colonial Brazil, especially in the Sao Paulo district, a person of mixed Indian and white ancestry. The reputation of mamelucos for cruelty toward Indians, supposedly reminiscent of the Mamluks, a Muslim military caste of Southwest Asia and Egypt in medieval and early modern times, prompted the use of the term. Mamelucos usually worked on fazendas (plantations) or as artisans or traders and were comparable to the mestizos in Spanish America. Others of mixed ancestry in Brazil were mulattoes (Negro and white) and cafusos (Indian and Negro; called zambos in Spanish America)