industrial district of Al-Iskandariyyah (Alexandria) muhafazah (governorate), northern Egypt. The centre of the 913-square-mile (2,365-square-km) district, which adjoins Lake Maryut (Mareotis) on the southwest, is Al-'Amiriyyah town. This town was originally a small gypsum-mining centre on the desert roads leading south to Cairo and west along the coast to Marsa Matruh. Al-'Amiriyyah's modern development began in the late 1970s, when construction started on major industrial plants in the district, including an oil refinery and textile, steel, and chemical plastics plants operated with energy from the natural-gas field at Abu Qir Bay. The area is served by the port at Al-Dukhaylah to the north, by Alexandria's airports at Nuzhah and Burj al-'Arab (Burg el-'Arab), and by the railroad linking Alexandria and Marsa Matruh. It also is situated beside the desert highway linking Alexandria with Cairo
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