city, western Uttar Pradesh state, northern India, on the Yamuna River, northwest of Agra. The site of Mathura was inhabited before the 1st century AD. In the 2nd century the city was a stronghold of Buddhists and Jainas. In 1017-18, Mahmud of Ghazna pillaged Mathura, and between 1500 and 1757 it was sacked four times. The city fell under British rule in 1804.
Learn more about Mathura with a free trial on Britannica.com.