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city, Nagano ken (prefecture), central Honshu, Japan, in a mountain basin on the Narai-gawa (Narai River). It is noted for its silk industry, which dates from feudal times. Mulberry and fruit trees are grown on terraces encircling the floor of the basin. The city is a tourist centre with hot springs and skiing resorts in the surrounding mountains. Near Matsumoto are two castles where governors of the historic province lived before the Tokugawa era (1603-1867), when the castles were passed to various daimyo families. Pop. (2005) 227,627.