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city, Thuringia Land (state), central Germany. It lies along the Werra River, between the Thuringian Forest (Thuringer Wald) and the Rhon Mountains. First mentioned in 982 and chartered in 1344, it belonged to the bishops of Wurzburg (after 1008) and the counts of Henneberg (after 1542) before it passed to Saxony in 1583. It was the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Meiningen from 1680 to 1919. A major fire in 1874 spared the ducal castle (1509-11), containing art, coin, and historical collections. In the late 19th century the town was noted for its dramatic academy and stock-company theatre and for its orchestra, conducted (1880-85) by Hans von Bulow and (1911-14) by Max Reger. Meiningen has built on this tradition by becoming a centre for the performing arts; it also has developed a thriving tourist industry. The city has railway repair shops and some light industry. Pop. (2003 est.) 21,775.