What is the X in X-mas?
(French: "melody"), the accompanied French art song of the 19th and 20th centuries. Following the model of the German Lied, the 19th-century melodie was usually a setting of a serious lyric poem for solo voice and piano that recognizably combined and unified the poetic and musical forms. The earliest use of the word melodie for this type of song was in the 1820s, when it was applied to the popular French translations and adaptations of Schubert's lieder. Berlioz was the first major composer to write in this style, which freed itself of the rigid strophic form and predominantly lighter mood of the earlier French romance. Other first-rank composers, recognizing the versatility and musical quality of French poetry-and inspired by the poetry of Verlaine and Baudelaire-molded the melodie into a typically French tradition of song. Meyerbeer, Liszt, Gounod, Bizet, Massenet, Saint-Saens, Lalo, and Franck all contributed to the development of the melodie, although in Franck's case, his importance in this field is more noteworthy as teacher. One of Franck's pupils was Henri Duparc, whose 16 songs (composed between 1868 and 1877) became the cornerstone for one of the most important and cherished genres of French music. At about the same time, Faure began to write songs, many forming song cycles (La Bonne Chanson, La Chanson d'Eve, Le Jardin clos, L' Horizon chimerique, and others) and all possessing the essence of the ideals inherent in French art and culture. Faure's influence on the younger generation, including Ravel, was considerable and signalled the decisive turning away from the path set by the Lied and anticipating the French Impressionist style, exemplified by Debussy's startling and exciting Chansons de Bilitis (1897). The songs of Ravel and of Albert Roussel generally follow this trend, but later 20th-century vocal compositions reflect the reaction of contemporary artists and writers against various forms of Romanticism and Impressionism. Neoclassicism, jazz, and music-hall (and other pseudo-popular) styles were often employed, although the apparent gaiety was just as often only superficial, a mask for deeper and more sombre feelings. Francis Poulenc and Darius Milhaud, two members of Les Six (the Parisian group of composers that came into existence after World War I), both made important contributions to the melodie. More recently, the character of French art songs has become more eclectic, and 12-note techniques have extended to athematic serialism.