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any of 19 species of venomous, secretive snakes, also known as mole vipers and stiletto snakes, of tropical Africa and the Middle East. They belong to the family Atractaspididae, a group distinct from vipers and elapids. Atractaspidids are characterized by a strong venom containing a powerful set of enzymes and toxins (sarafotoxins) not found in other snakes and enormously long fangs that cannot be fully erected as in vipers. They are unique among snakes as they are able to bite and envenom their prey with their mouth essentially closed. The burrowing asp depresses its lower jaw, exposing long fangs that are directed posteriorly. It may stab its head sideways and backwards into its prey or, as snake handlers have unfortunately learned, into a grasping hand. This response is thought to occur as a result of feeding underground in animal burrows or tunnels where movement is limited. Atractaspidids are often confused with harmless black burrowing snakes of the genus Chilorhinophis, and this confusion has resulted in many bites. Atractaspidid venom is considered dangerous but not lethal to humans.