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city in eastern Tunisia. It lies at the tip of a small peninsula protruding into the Mediterranean Sea between the Gulf of Hammamet and the Bay of Al-Munastir. The ruins of Ruspinum, a Phoenician and Roman settlement, are 3 miles (5 km) to the west of the city. Monastir is now a port and, with adjacent Saqanis (Skanes), forms a fashionable beach resort complex that is served by an international airport. Its industries include textile milling (especially wool) and the manufacture of salt, soap, and olive oil. The city has a noted ribat (monastery-fortress), founded in 180 CE, to which it owes its name; also in the city are several old mosques and a modern mosque that was completed in 1968 and dedicated to Tunisia's first president, Habib Bourguiba, who was born in Monastir. Benefiting from Bourguiba's patronage, Monastir enjoyed considerable development, including a modern marina. In 2000 Bourguiba was buried at Monastir in his family mausoleum. Pop. (2004) 71,546.
southernmost city of Macedonia, 2,019 feet (615 metres) in altitude on the Dragor River and at the western edge of the Bitola Plain, a few miles from the Greek frontier. Near the Greek-founded settlement Heraclea Lyncestis, later a Roman city, it was invaded by Slavic tribes in the 5th and 6th centuries, and thereafter declined. The Monastery of Obitelj (still visible) played an important role in the community until the city was taken by the Turks and became a thriving cosmopolitan city of commercial and military importance. There were 60 mosques in the city, of which 12 remain. In the Balkan Wars (1912-13) Bitola was taken by the Serbs, cutting off the city from a 500-year Muslim history. World War II brought a further decline in economic activity and in population; its Jewish community was wiped out.