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1738 (adj.); 1846 (n.), from Mongol + -ian. As a classification for "the Asiatic race," it is from 1868.
Mongolian Mon·go·li·an or mon·go·li·an (mŏng-gō'lē-ən, -gōl'yən, mŏn-)adj. Relating to Down syndrome. No longer in technical use. Now considered offensive.