the hypothetical descent of the human race from a single pair of individuals.
Biology. the hypothetical descent of all living things from a single cell.
Also, monogeny.

1860–65; mono- + -genesis Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
monogenesis or monogeny (ˌmɒnəʊˈdʒɛnɪsɪs, mɒˈnɒdʒɪnɪ)
1.  the hypothetical descent of all organisms from a single cell or organism
2.  asexual reproduction in animals
3.  the direct development of an ovum into an organism resembling the adult
4.  the hypothetical descent of all human beings from a single pair of ancestors
monogeny or monogeny

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

monogenesis mon·o·gen·e·sis (mŏn'ə-jěn'ĭ-sĭs)

  1. The theory that all living organisms are descended from a single cell or organism.

  2. The production of similar organisms in successive generations.

  3. Asexual reproduction, as by sporulation or parthenogenesis.

  4. The process of parasitizing a single host, in or on which the entire life cycle of the parasite is passed.

mon'o·ge·net'ic (-jə-nět'ĭk) adj.
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