the apparently enormously magnified shadow of an observer cast, when the Sun is low, upon the upper surfaces of clouds that are below the mountain upon which he stands. The apparent magnification of size of the shadow is an optical illusion that occurs when the observer judges his shadow on relatively nearby clouds to be at the same distance as faraway land objects seen through gaps in the clouds. The phenomenon is often observed on mountain peaks but is recorded in literature with special reference to the Brocken, a peak in the Harz Mountains in Germany where the Brocken bow sometimes produces spectacular effects. The observer's shadow is often surrounded by coloured bands or rings that are the result of the diffraction of sunlight by water droplets in the cloud. The phenomenon of rainbowlike bands around a shadow on a cloud is also commonly observed from airplanes flying in sunlight above a cloud layer
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