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city, seat of Delaware county, eastern Indiana, U.S. It lies along the White River, 55 miles (89 km) northeast of Indianapolis. Muncie is the average American town described in the classic sociological study Middletown, published in 1929 by Robert S. and Helen M. Lynd. The name (shortened in 1845 from Munseetown or Munsey Town) commemorates the Munsee (Wolf) clan of Delaware Indians who once lived there. The town was founded in 1827, when Goldsmith C. Gilbert, a trader, donated land for the county seat. The first railroad (1852) and the discovery of natural gas (first exploited 1886) contributed to the city's growth. Although gas production failed in the early 1900s, the city continued to grow as a manufacturing and agricultural centre and a regional transportation hub. It is now a trading and industrial centre; diverse manufactures include automotive transmissions and parts, tools and dies, wire, paper, and plastics. Muncie is the seat of Ball State University (1918). Oakhurst Gardens, Minnetrista (which features artistic, historical, and horticultural exhibits), and the Academy of Model Aeronautics (a museum and competition site) are in the city. Summit Lake State Park is about 10 miles (15 km) south. The Lynd studies (Middletown in Transition appeared in 1937) were at first resented; since that time, however, Muncie has come to be proud of its "typical American" title. Inc. town, 1854; city, 1865. Pop. (2000) city, 67,430; Muncie MSA, 118,769; (2005 est.) city, 66,164; (2004 est.) Muncie MSA, 117,774.