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chief town of the island of Lesbos and of the nomos (department) of Lesbos, Greece. Mytilene, whose name is pre-Greek, is also the seat of a metropolitan bishop of the Orthodox church. The ancient city, lying off the east coast, was initially confined to an island that later was joined to Lesbos, creating a north and south harbour. Mytilene contested successfully with Methymna in the north of the island for the leadership of the island in the seventh century BC and became the centre of the island's prosperous hinterland. From the 6th century BC the city suffered from dictators, wars with Athens, Persian conquest, and civil revolts. It was made a free city under the Romans. From 1355 to 1462 the Gateluzzi family occupied the island, rebuilding (1373) the Byzantine fortress. In 1462 Lesbos fell to the Turks, who held it until 1912, when it joined the Greek kingdom. In 1958 a Greek theatre, overlooking the town from the hillside, was excavated. Pop. (1981) 24,115.