small kettledrum that reached Europe from the Middle East in the 13th century, during the Crusades. Nakers were made of wood, metal, or clay and were sometimes equipped with snares. They were almost always played in pairs and were struck with hard sticks. They were probably tuned to high and low notes of identifiable pitch. Like the similar Arabic naqqarah, from which they derived, nakers were used in military and battle music, as well as in the softer indoor chamber music and in dance accompaniments. They continued in use through the 16th century.
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