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explorer of the Sahara who helped Germany obtain protectorates in western equatorial Africa. After spending several years as a military surgeon, he went to Tunisia as physician to the bey (ruler) and took part in several expeditions to the interior. In 1869 the king of Prussia, William I, sent him on a mission to the kingdom of Bornu, now in northern Nigeria. He travelled by way of central Sahara regions then unknown to Europeans, including the Tibesti and Borkou regions, which today lie within northern Chad. From Bornu he crossed the sultanate of Baguirmi, also in Chad, and, continuing by way of the Kordofan province of the Sudan, reached Cairo in November 1875. Sahara und Sudan (1879-81) gives an account of his expedition. While serving as German consul at Tunis (1882-84), he was sent by Bismarck to western Africa ostensibly to make trade agreements but secretly to help secure German protectorates over regions now in Togo and Cameroon.