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(Japanese: "likeness painting"), form of sketchy portraiture that became fashionable in the court circles of 12th- and 13th-century Japan. Realistic art was originally outside the tradition of Japanese portraiture, which, until the 12th century, was purely religious in character. Alongside the rise of scroll painting, which depicted incidents of real life, a parallel trend in the field of portraiture arose in the second half of the 12th century. The skill of nise-e consisted in catching a man's character in a few simple lines, although portraits expressed not so much a feeling for the individual and his characteristics as veneration for his accomplishments. The angular, geometric, almost abstract treatment of robes contrasts strikingly with the realistic treatment of the face