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in the Shinto religious practices of Japan, words, or prayer, addressed by worshipers to a deity. The efficacy of prayer is founded on the concept of koto-dama, the spiritual power that resides in words. According to ancient belief, beautiful, correct words bring about good, whereas ugly, coarse language can cause evil. Accordingly, norito are expressed in elegant, classical language, typified by that found in the Engi-shiki ("Institutes of the Engi Period"), a 50-volume work compiled in the 10th century. Prayers usually include words of praise for the deities, lists of offerings, and petitions. During the period when State Shinto was under the control of political authorities, the wording of prayers recited at public shrines was determined by the government. At present, the chief priest of a shrine pronounces the norito on behalf of the worshipers, and the contents and wordings of the prayer may vary.