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city, Piemonte (Piedmont) regione, northwestern Italy. It lies along the Agogna River, west of Milan. It originated as the Roman colony of Novaria, which was founded by Julius Caesar and destroyed in the 5th century; a new commune, established in the 6th century, was burned by the Holy Roman emperor Henry V in 1110. It recovered to become a member of the Lombard League (an alliance of northern Italian towns) in 1167. Novara was dominated by Milan until it passed to Austria in 1714 and to Savoy in 1738. It was the scene of Austrian victories in 1821 and 1849; in the last battle, the Austrians, under Joseph Radetzky, defeated Piedmontese forces led by Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, leading to the latter's abdication.