octave

[ok-tiv, -teyv]
noun
1.
Music.
a.
a tone on the eighth degree from a given tone.
b.
the interval encompassed by such tones.
c.
the harmonic combination of such tones.
d.
a series of tones, or of keys of an instrument, extending through this interval.
2.
a pipe-organ stop whose pipes give tones an octave above the normal pitch of the keys used.
3.
a series or group of eight.
4.
Also called octet. Prosody.
a.
a group of eight lines of verse, especially the first eight lines of a sonnet in the Italian form. Compare sestet ( def 1 ).
b.
a stanza of eight lines.
5.
the eighth of a series.
6.
Ecclesiastical.
a.
the eighth day from a feast day, counting the feast day as the first.
b.
the period of eight days beginning with a feast day.
7.
one eighth of a pipe of wine.
8.
Fencing. the eighth of eight defensive positions.
adjective
9.
pitched an octave higher.

Origin:
1300–50; Middle English < Latin octāva eighth part, noun use of feminine of octāvus, equivalent to oct- oct- + -āvus adj. suffix

octaval [ok-tey-vuhl, ok-tuh-] , adjective
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
octave (ˈɒktɪv)
 
n
1.  a.  the interval between two musical notes one of which has twice the pitch of the other and lies eight notes away from it counting inclusively along the diatonic scale
 b.  one of these two notes, esp the one of higher pitch
 c.  perfect diminished See also interval (as modifier): an octave leap
2.  prosody a rhythmic group of eight lines of verse
3.  a.  a feast day and the seven days following
 b.  the final day of this period
4.  the eighth of eight basic positions in fencing
5.  any set or series of eight
 
adj
6.  consisting of eight parts
 
[C14: (originally: eighth day) via Old French from Medieval Latin octāva diēs eighth day (after a festival), from Latin octo eight]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

octave
c.1300, vtaues (pl., from popular O.Fr. form otaves), later reformed, from M.L. octava, from L. octava dies "eighth day," fem. of octavus "eighth," from octo (see eight). Originally "period of eight days after a festival," also "eighth day after a festival" (counting both
days, thus if the festival was on a Sunday, the octaves would be the following Sunday). Verse sense of "stanza of eight lines" is from c.1586; musical sense of "note eight diatonic degrees above (or below) a given note" is first recorded 1656, from L. octava (pars) "eighth part."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
octave [(ok-tiv)]

An interval between musical notes in which the higher note is six whole tones, or twelve half tones, above the lower. From the standpoint of physics, the higher note has twice the frequency of the lower. Notes that are an octave apart, or a whole number of octaves apart, sound in some ways like the same note and have the same letter for their names.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
The whistles are tuned to a chromatic scale and generally have a range of two
  octaves.
Well, often times, jazz music covers a lot of octaves.
Don't think for a second that number of octaves count.
His voice, normally slow and thoughtful, has jumped two octaves.
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