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dental specialty that deals with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of the diseases, injuries, and defects of the human mouth, jaw, and associated structures. The most common oral surgery procedure is tooth extraction. Other dental problems that require the skill of an oral surgeon include treatment of cysts (liquid- or semisolid-filled sacs), tumours, lesions, and infections of the mouth and jaw. More complex problems that are dealt with by the oral surgeon include jaw and facial injuries, cleft palate, cleft lip, and placement of implants. Both dentists and physicians refer patients to an oral surgeon for treatment of such defects. Oral surgery has special problems because (1) the lips and the cheeks limit access to jaw and palate; (2) the tongue and the lower jaw move; (3) the oral cavity opens into the pharynx (the passageway for air and food); and (4) the oral region is continually being flooded with saliva and is inhabited by the largest number and greatest variety of microorganisms found in the human body.